PNR

Term Definition
Photosynthesis A process by which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy (sugar), oxygen and water.
Chloroplast An elongated cell organelle containing chlorophll where photosynthesis takes place.
Chlorophll A green molecule which uses light energy from the sunlight to change water and carbon dioxide gas into sugar oxygen.
Celllar Respiration The process by which the chemical energy of "food" molecules is released and changed into ATP.
Glucose Is the food for the plant. It gives the plant energy to grow.
Mitochondria Rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane which converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cell
Photosynthesis Equation H2O+CO2+Light+O2+C6H12O6
Respiration Equation O2+C6H12O6->H2O+CO2+ATP
Carbon Dioxide A gas that the plant absorbs as its oxygen.
Diffusion When something rapidly spreads.
Osmosis When molecules pass threw the cell membrane.
Active Transport When molecules move across the cell membrane.

Diversification

Term Definition
bear market A market with generally stagnant or falling stock prices.
bonds Interest-earning loans to the government, corporations, or municipalities.
bull market A market with generally rising stock prices.
diversification Owning a collection of investments
financial planner An investment advisor who can help you define and reach your financial goals.
investment portfolio The collection of investments you personally hold, including stocks, bonds, money market accounts, and savings accounts.
large-cap stock Stocks of very large companies, such as Walmart, General Electric, and IBM, that have a market capitalization of between $10 billion and $200 billion.
small-cap stock Stocks of largely unknown companies with smaller market capitalization, or dollar value of total stock ownership. Small-cap stocks generally have a market capitalization between $300 million and $2 billion.

Module 2 Vocabulary about The Environment

Term Definition
Estuary An arm or inlet of the sea at the lower end of a river.
Fin A thin part on the side or top of a fish.
Gills The parts on the sides of fish wich allow it to breath.
Limbs Arms and legs.
Pipefish A small fish in the same family as the seahorse.
Pouch A pocket of skin on a animal.
Resemble To be or look similar.
Shellfish Seafood.
Without a doubt Certainly.
Due to Because of.
In the wild In the nature.
Landfill A hole where large amounts of rubbish
Oil Spin A layer of oil floating on the sea after an accident.
Rely on Depend on.
Rodent A small mammal with scaly sharp front teeth.
Scaly Having scales, small flat pieces of skin that cover a fish.
Shortage A lack of.
Spotted pelt The skin of an animal with coloured dots.
Threatened At risk of ruffering harm.
Harm Damage.
Water pollution The contamination of rivers, seas, etc.
Breed To have babies.
Land surface The outside layer of the Earth.
Raise awareness To make people notice.
Exhaust fumes Gases released by a vehicle when the engine is running.
Frightening proportions Of a size that is very serius.
Growth Development.
Ivory Coloured substance which forms an elephant?s tusks.

Giver Vocab Ch 15-19

Term Definition
Burden (noun) A difficult or worrying responsibility or duty
Carnage (noun) widespread slaughter or massacre
Concept (noun) a thought or notion
Despite (preposition) regardless of something
Ecstatic (adj) showing or feeling great pleasure or delight
Grief (noun) great sadness
Horde (noun) a large group of people
Immobilize (verb) to fix in place, to stop or disable
Inflict (Verb) to cause damage, harm, or unpleasantness to somebody or something
Luminous (adj) bright or shining
Optimistic (adj) tending to take a hopeful and positive view of future outcomes
Precise (adj) exact or specific
Rigid (adj) Stiff, not flexible
Solitude (noun) the state of being or living alone
Vague (adj) not clearly felt, understood or recalled

Stack #2638344

Question Answer
photosythesis the process used by plants, algae and certain bacteria to harness energy from sunlight
Cellular respiration the process of breaking sugar into a form that the cell can use as energy.
Chloroplast small organelles inside the cells of plants and algae.
Chlorophyll a chemical found in the chloroplasts of plants that allows the plant to absorb light.
Glucose sugar.
Mitochondria known as the powerhouses of the cell.
Photosynthesis equation carbon dioxide + water + light energy > oxygen + water.
Respiration equation the most basic level of metabolism in all living things, and the overall equation for cellular respiration
Carbon dioxide People and animals release this when they breathe out
Diffusion a physical process where molecules of a material move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Osmosis the movement of water through plasma membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration.
Active transport the process by which dissolved molecules move across a cell membrane from a lower to a higher concentration.

Giver Vocab Ch 15-19

Term Definition
Burden Noun/ A difficult or worrying responsibility or duty
Carnage Noun/ Widespread slaughter or massacre
Concept Noun/ A thought or Notion
Despite Preposition/ Regardless of something
Ecstatic Adj/ Showing or feeling great pleasure or delight
Horde Noun/ A large group of people
Greif Noun/ Great Sadness
Immobilize Verb/ To fix in place, to stop or disable
Inflict Verb/ To cause damage, harm, or unpleasantness to somebody or something
Luminous Adj/ Bright or shining
Optimistic Adj/ Tending to take a hopeful and positive view of future outcomes
Precise Adj/ Exact or specific
Rigid Adj/ Stiff, not flexible
Solitude Noun/ The state of being or living alone
Vague Adj/ Not clearly felt, understood or recalled

S4 Prelim Concepts

Term Definition
Accelerando The tempo (speed) of the music gradually becomes faster. Compare rallentando.
Alberti Bass Broken chords. On Keyboard instruments this effect is achieved when the broken chord is played by the left hand outlining harmonies whilst the right hand plays the melody. Low High Middle High
Arco Bowed Stringed instruments. Opposite of Pizzicato.
Aria A song in an opera with orchestral accompaniment.
Atonal No feeling of key, major or minor. Very dissonant. A feature of some 20th-century music.
Baroque 1600-1750 approximately. Bach and Handel were two of the composers from this period. Look out for Harpsichord
Binary A form in which the music is made up of two different sections labelled A and B. Each section may be repeated. See Ternary.
Blues Scale In the key of C, the main blues scale uses the notes C, Eb, F, Gb, G, Bb, C.
Cadenza A passage of music which allows soloists to display their technical ability in singing or playing an instrument.
Chromatic Notes which move by the interval of a semitone.
Classical A term used to describe/refer to music composed during the period 1750-1810 approximately; the era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. Homophonic
Compound Time The beat is divided into groups of three. Opposite of Simple Time.
Con Sordino Using a mute changes the sound normally produced on an instrument.
Concerto A work for solo instrument and orchestra, e.g. a flute concerto is written for flute and orchestra.
Cross Rhythm Contrasting rhythms played at the same time or played with unusual emphasis on notes.
Descant A counter melody which accompanies and is sung above the main melody.
Double Stopping Technique achieved by bowed stringed instruments playing more than one string at the same time producing more than one note.
Flutter Tonguing Rolling your 'r’s' whilst playing a brass or woodwind instrument.
Gospel Music written with religious lyrics, often in praise or thanksgiving to God. Gospel has its origins in Afro-American culture.
Grace Notes A type of ornament played as a quick note before the main note of a melody.
Homophony Texture where you hear melody with accompaniment or where all the parts move together rhythmically. Opposite of Polyphony.
Imperfect Cadence A cadence consists of two chords at the end of a phrase. An Imperfect Cadence makes a piece of music sound unfinished. See Perfect Cadence.
Indian Music from India which uses instruments such as the sitar and tabla.
Inverted Pedal A note which is held on or repeated continuously at a high pitch. Opposite in pitch to pedal.
Jig A fast dance in compound time. Usually 2 beats in a bar, with each beat dividing into 3 quavers.
Latin American Dance music from South America – or music played in that style. Percussion instruments provide lively off-beat dance rhythms.
Major Tonality The music sounds in a major key – often described as having a cheery, happy feel to it.
Minor Tonality The music sounds in a minor key, often described as having a sadder feel than major.
Melismatic Word Setting Several notes sung to one syllable – the opposite of Syllabic Word Setting.
Modulation A change of key.
Mouth Music Unaccompanied songs with Gaelic or nonsense words, normally sung for ceilidh dances.
Pentatonic Scale Any five-note scale. Scottish and Celtic folk music often use Pentatonic Scales.
Perfect Cadence A cadence consists of two chords at the end of a phrase or piece of music. A Perfect Cadence makes a piece of music sound finished.
Pizzicato Abbreviation pizz. An instruction given to string players to pluck the strings instead of using the bow.
Polyphonic Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance, which weave independently of each other.
Ragtime A style of dance music which became popular at the end of the 19th century and which helped to influence Jazz.
Rallentando The tempo (speed) of the music gradually slows down. (Abbreviation 'rall'.)
Reel A Scottish dance written in simple time with two or four beats in a bar. It is usually in a major key and is played at a fairly fast tempo. Each beat can be heard dividing equally into groups of two or four.
Reggae Reggae has quite a distinctive sound and has the characteristic of strong accents on the 2nd and 4th beats of the bar.
Riff A repeated phrase usually found in Jazz and Popular music.
Romantic In music, the period 1810-1900 approximately, which followed the Classical era.
Rondo A B A C A. A form where the first section (A) comes back between contrasting sections.
SATB SATB is an abbreviation for vocal parts.Soprano – High Female VoiceAlto – Low Female VoiceTenor – High Male VoiceBass – Low Male Voice
Scat Singing Nonsense words, syllables and sounds are improvised (made up) by the singer. Sometimes the singer is imitating the sounds of instruments. Used mainly in Jazz singing.
Simple Time Music has two, three or four beats in each bar. Each beat is usually one crotchet. The first beat of each bar is accented. Opposite of Compound Time.
Syllabic Word Setting Vocal music where each syllable is given one note only. Opposite of Melismatic Word Setting.
Syncopation Strongly accented notes playing off or against the beat and occurs in all kinds of music.
Trill Rapid and repeated movement between two adjacent notes.
Voices in Harmony The sound of two or more notes made at the same time.
Voices in Unison Two or more parts or voices sounding at the same pitch.
Walking Bass A bass line (low notes) often featured in a variety of jazz styles. It goes for a walk, up and down a pattern of notes, and is often played on a double bass.
Waltz A dance with three beats in a bar in simple time.
Whole Tone Scale A scale containing no semitones but built entirely on whole tones.

Vocab ch 15-19

Term Definition
Burden (noun) A difficult or worrying responsibility or duty
Carenage (noun) widespread slaughter or massacre
Concept (noun) a thought or notion
Despite (preposition) regardless of something
Ecstatic (adj) showing or feeling great pleasure or delight
Grief (noun) great sadness
Horde (noun) a large group of people
Immobilize (verb) to fix in place, to stop or disable
Inflict (verb) to cause damage, harm, or unpleasantness to somebody or something
Luminous (adj) bright or shining
Optimistic (adj) tending to take hopeful and positive view of future outcomes
Precise (adj) exact or specific
Rigid (adj) stiff, not flexiable
Solitude (noun) the state of being or living alone
Vague (adj) not clearly felt, understood or recalled

2nd year Immuniology 2nd year immunology for universityof strathclyde

Question Answer
What are the 3 key functions of antibodies? Neutralisation, Opsonisation, Complement
what is the functional activity of IgA Neutralisation, Opsonisation and activation of compliment system
what is the functional activity of IgM Neutralisation, Opsonisation and activation of compliment system
what is the functional activity of IgG Dependant on subclass but can include Neutralisation, Opsonisation and activation of compliment system, sensitisation of mast cells and NK cell functions
what is the functional activity of IgE sensitisation of mast cells
Describe IgG most abundant antibody in the blood, has 4 subtypes, major Ig produced during secondary response
Describe IgA found in blood serum & Mucosal secretions. First line of defence against microorganisms at mucosal surfaces
Describe IgM Produced by and presented on B-Cell surface, found in blood as pentamer, produced during primary response
Describe IgD found in low concentrations, acts as antigen receptor on B-Cell surface
Describe IgE plays a role in acute inflammation, protection against parasites and in allergic reactions
summarise neutralisation antibody binds to toxins/viruses preventing them from binding to cells and causing pathology
summarise opsonisation antibody binds to bacteria allowing phagocytosis to occur by macrophages and neutrophils
summarise compliment a series of proteins that bind to pathogens creating holes in its cell surface
what are the different compliment pathways Lectin, Alternative and classical
Describe the lectin pathway initiated by mannan binding protein (mannan binding ligand, MBL) carbohydrate structures present on microorganisms bind to mannan binding protein, it continues after the formation of C3 as the classical pathway
Describe the Alternative pathway Binds directly to pathogen, begins at compliment 3 (C3) but finishes in the same way as the classical pathway
Describe the classical pathway Activated by IgM/IgG Compliment protein binds to Fc region of antibody, via series of enzymatic reactions it's broken down to form the membrane attack complex, this causes cell lysis in gram negative bacteria and human cells. inflammation occurs
apart from compliment what other soluble mediators are used in immunity Lysozymes, defensisns and cathelicidins
Where are T-Cells selected Thymus
where do T-Cells circulate Lymph nodes
what 2 protein chains paired together on T-Cell receptors Alpha + Beta OR Gamma and Delta
when activated T cells differentiate into 2 types of cells, what are these? CD4+ ‘helper’ T cellCD8+ ‘killer’ T cell
Epitopes from pathogens are presented to T-Cells bound to 1 or both of these complexes MHC1MHC2
MHC Class 1 binds to CD8+ ‘killer’ T cell
MHC class 2 binds to CD4+ ‘helper’ T cell
what are the 2 main CD4+ helper cells T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2)
What is the role of Th1 Secretion of interferon gamma INFg and macrophage activation
What is the role of Th2 stimulates antibody production and secretion of IL-4 (B-cell activation)
what is extravasation Recruitment of neutrophils to site of infection
What are the stages of phagocytosis RecognitionPseudopod formation.IngestionPhagosomePhagosome /Lysosome formation Digestion

Giver Vocab Ch 4-6

Term Definition
gravitating move or be attracted by a strong influence
chortle to laugh with a snorting chuckle
infraction the act of breaking the law or a rule
dosage the amount of medication in a single dose
interdependence dependent on one another
indulgently to yield to, satisfy, or gratify desires, feelings, etc.
exuberant overflowing with high spirits
impatient irritated or annoyed by delay
buoyancy the power to float or rise in water
ritual a set procedure for religious rite
elder a person born earlier; someone older
adherence to stick to or firmly attached
intrigue to plot craftily or underhandedly
retroactive applying to the past (events)
serene peaceful, calm, quiet