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Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
Cellular respiration The chemical process that generates most of the energy in the cell, supplying molecules needed to make the metabolic reactions (see metabolism) of an organism run. Note: The main carrier of energy in metabolism is the molecule ATP.
Chloroplast a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
Chlorophyll a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring.
Glucose a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.a syrup containing glucose and other sugars, made by hydrolysis of starch and used in the food industry.
Mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae).
Photosynthesis equation Plants take in carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose sugar and oxygen.: Carbon dioxide + water produces -> glucose oxygen. In chemical language, this is written as, 6CO2 + 6H2O produces-> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Respiration equation biochemical process in which the cells of an organism obtain energy by combining oxygen and glucose, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide, water, and ATP (the currency of energy in cells).
Carbon dioxide a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration. It is naturally present in air (about 0.03 percent) and is absorbed by plants in photosynthesis.
Diffusion the action of spreading the light from a light source evenly so as to reduce glare and harsh shadows.
Osmosis a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
Active transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

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