Chapter 15

Chapter 15

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Term Definition
Renaissance an era of renewed interest and remarkable developments in art, literature, science, and learning in Europe beginning in Italy in the 1300s
Secular having a worldly rather than spiritual focus
Humanism a movement that emphasized the possibilities of individual accomplishment and the almost limitless potential of the human mind
Baldassare Castiglione Italian aristocrat who wrote The Courier, which became a handbook for how to succeed in society
Niccolo Machiavelli Florentine political philosopher and statesmen who wrote The Prince, which advised rulers to separate morals from politics
Lorenzo de Medici ruler of Florence who was an important patron of arts and learning
Leonardo da Vinci "Renaissance man" who became famous as a painter, architect, inventor, and engineer; painter of the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Raphael famous painter of both classical and religious subjects and accomplished architect
Michelangelo Buonarroti sculptor and painter famous for works such as the Sistine Chapel, the statue David, and the design of the dome of St. Peter's Cathedral
Johannes Gutenberg German man credited with the invention of movable type in the mid-1400s
Desiderius Erasmus priest and Christian humanist philosopher who wrote about the need for a simple Christian life without the rituals and politics of the church
Sir Thomas More English humanist who wrote Utopia, a book that told about perfect but nonexistent society based on reason
William Shakespeare English playwright and poet; author of such famous works as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream
Christine de Pisan Italian-born woman who wrote the first important work focusing on the role women played in society
Albrecht Durer German artist who visited Italy in the late 1400s, learning techniques of realism and perspective, influencing later German Renaiassance artists
Jan van Eyck Flemish painter who focused on landscapes and everyday life
Protestant Reformation a movement beginning in the 1500s to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to a split of the church between Catholics and Protestants
Indulgences exchange of money for forgiveness of sin
Martin Luther critic of the Roman Catholic Church whose theses sparked discussion about its practices and beliefs and to the founding of Lutheranism
Theocracy a government in which church and state are joined and whose officials are considered to be divinely inspired
John Calvin important Protestant reformer whose writings became the basis of Calvinism
Predestination religious doctrine that states God has already determined who will be saved and so nothing people do can change their fate
Henry VIII English king who broke with the Catholic Church in order to divorce his first wife
Annulled declared invalid based on church laws
Elizabeth I daughter of Henry VIII and queen who firmly established England of Protestant
Counter-Reformation reform movement within the Catholic Church
Jesuits religious order which emphasized reform of the church, spirituality, service to others, education, and the further spread of Catholicism; also called Society of Jesus
Ignatius of Loyola founder of the Jesuits whose search for spiritual peace led him to give up his belongings and practice self-denial
Council of Trent meetings called by Pope Paul III to make a series of reforms to the church and clarify important teachings, took place between 1545 and 1563
Charles Borromeo archbishop of Milan who implemented the reforms decreed by the Council of Trent, such as building schools for priests
Francis of Sales French missionary who returned the French district of Savoy to the Catholic church and founded a religious teaching order to women
Teresa of Avila Spanish nun who reformed the Carmelite order

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