chapter 15

chapter 15

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Term Definition
renaissance an era of renewed interest and remarkable developments in art, literature, science, and learning in europe beginning in Italy in the 1300s
secular having a worldly rather than spirtual focus
humanism a movement that emphasized the possibilities of individual accomplishment and the almost limitless potential of the human mind
baldassare castiglione italian aristocrat who wrote the coutier, which became a handbook for how to succeed in society
niccolo machiavelli florentine political philospher and states man who wrote the prince, which advised rulers to separat morals from politics
lorenzo de medici ruler of florence who was and important patron of arts and learning
leondardo da vinci "renaissance man" who became famous as a painter, architect, inventor, and engineer; painter of the mona lisa and the last supper
raphael famous painter of both classical and religious subjects and accomplished architect
michelangelo buonarroti sculptor and painter famous for works such as the sistine chapel, the stature of david, and the design of the dome of st. peters cathedral
johnnes gutenberg german man credited with the invention of movable type in the mid-1400s
desiderius erasmus priest and christian humanist philosopher who wrote about the need for a simple christian life without the rituals and politics of the chruch
sir thomas more english humanist who wrote utopia, a book that told about a perfect but nonexistent society based on reason
william shakespeare english playwright and poet; author of such famous works as hamlet, romeo and juliet, macbeth, and a midsummer nights dream
christine de pisan italian-born woman who wrote the first important work forcusing on the role women played in society
albrecht durer german artist who visited otalu on the late 1400s, learning techniques of realism and perspective, influencing later geman renaissance artists
jan van eyck flemish painter who focused on landscapes and everyday life
protestant reformation a moverment beginning in the 1500s to reform the roman catholic church, which led to a split of the church between catholics and protestants
indulgences exchange of money for forgiveness of sin
martin luther critic of the roman catholic church whose these sparked discussion about its practices and beliefs and to the founding of the luteranism
theocracy a government in whcih chruch and state are joined and whose officials are considered to be divinely inspired
john calvin important protestant reformer whose writings became the basis of calvinism
predestation religious doctrime that states god has laready determined who will be saved and so nothing people cam do can change their fate
henery VIII english king who broke with the catholic church in order to divorce his first wife
annulled declared invalid based on church laws
elizabeth I daughter of henery VIII and queen who firmly established englad as protestant
counter-reformation reform movement witchin the catholic chruch
jesuits religious order which emphasized reform of the church, spiritually, service to others, education, and the further spread of chatolicism' also called society of jesus
ignatius of loyola founder of the jeuits whose search for spirtiual peace led him to give up his belongings and practice self-denial
council of trent meetings called by pope paul III to make a series of reforms to the church and clarify important teachings, took place between 1545 and 1563
charles borromeo archbishop of milan who implemented the reforms decreed by the council of trent, such as building schools for priests
francis of sales french missionary who returned the frnch distect of savoy to the catholic church and founded a religious teaching order for woment
teresa of avila spanish nun who reofrmed the carmelite order

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