Chapter 15 Renaissance and Reformation

Chapter 15 Renaissance and Reformation

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Term Definition
Renaissance an era of renewed interest and remarkable developments in art, literature, science, and learning in Europe beginning in Italy in the 1300s
humanism having a worldly rather than spiritual focus
secular a movement that emphasized the possibilities of individual accomplishment and the almost limitless potential of the human mind
Baldassare Castiglione Italian aristocrat who wrote the Courtier, which became a handbook for how to succeed in society
Niccolo Machiavelli Florentine political philosopher and statesman who wrote The Prince, which advised rulers to separate morals from politics
Lorenzo de Medici ruler of Florence who was an important patron of arts and learning
Leonardo da Vinci "Renaissance man" who became famous as a painter, architect, inventor, and engineer; painter of the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Michelangelo Buonarroti sculptor and painter famous for works such as the Sistine Chapel, the statue David, and the design of the dome of St. Peter`s Cathedral
Raphael famous painter of both classical and religious subjects and accomplished architect
Johannes Gutenburg German man credited with the invention of movable type in the mid-1400s
Desiderius Erasmus priest and Christian humanist philosopher who wrote about the need for a simple Christian life without the rituals and politics of the church
Sir Thomas More English humanist who wrote Utopia, a book that told about a perfect but nonexistent society based on reason
William Shakespeare English playwright and poet; author of such famous works as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night`s Dream
Christine de Pisan Italian-born woman who wrote the first important work focusing on the role women played in society
Albrecht Durer German artist who visited Italy in the late 1400s, learning techniques of realism and perspective, influencing later German Renaissance artists
Jan van Eyck Flemish painter focused on landscapes and everyday life
Protestant Reformation A movement beginning in the 1500s to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to a split of the church between Catholics and Protestants
indulgences exchange of money for forgiveness of sin
Martian Luther critic of the Roman Catholic Church whose theses sparked discussion about its practices and beliefs and to the founding of Lutheranism
theocracy a government in which church and state are joined and whose officials are considered to be divinely inspired
John Calvin important reformer whose writings became the basis for Calvinism
predestination religious doctrine that states God has already determined who will be saved and so nothing people do ca change their fate
Henry VIII English king who broke with the Catholic Church in order to divorce his first wife
annulled declared invalid based on church laws
Elizabeth I daughter of Henry VIII and queen who firmly established England as Protestant
Counter-Reformation reform movement within the Catholic Church
Jesuits religious order which emphasized reform of the church, spiritually, service to others education, and further spread of Catholicism; also called the Society of Jesus
Ignatius of Loyola founder of the Jesuits whose search for spiritual peace lead him to give up his belongings and practice self denial
Council of Trent meetings called by Pope Paul III to make a series of reforms to the church and clarify important teachings, took place between 1545 and 1563
Charles Borromeo
Francis of Sales
Teresa of Avila

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