Chapter 22

Chapter 22

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Question Answer
What was the geocentric theory? Who came up with it? Why did the Church support it? It was a theory that scholars believed that the Earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe. The idea cane from Aristotle. The Church supported it because they also agreed that God put the earth in the center of everything.
What was the Scientific Revolution? When did it begin. It was a major change in European thought, starting in the mid- 1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
What is the heliocentric theory? It is the idea that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
What did Nicolaus Copernicus discover about the universe? He said that the stars, earth, and other planets revolved around the sun.
How did Copernicus think the Church would react to his idea and why? He knew that most scholars and clergy would reject his theory because it contradicted their religious views.
What is the Enlightenment? The new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought.
What is a Social Contract? The agreement by which the people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized government.
What is a Philosophes? Social critics in France during the 1700s.
What were the five concepts that formed their core beliefs? Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, and Liberty.
Who was Voltaire and what did he do? Voltaire was the most brilliant and influential of the philosophes. He used satire against the clergy, aristocracy, and government.
What is a Baroque? Characterized by a grand, ornate design. It could be seen in elaborate palaces such as Versailles and in numerous paintings.
What is neoclassical? The artistic style of the late 1700s that has been formed by the thoughts of the Enlightenment.
What is Enlightened despots? Monarchs that embraced the new ideas and made reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirit.
What does despots mean? "Absolute ruler"
What is a Salon? Where wealthy women of Paris held regular social gatherings.

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