chapter 9 c exam 3

chapter 9 c exam 3

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Question Answer
Central Dogma refers to… the flow of information within the cell itself and from parental cell to progeny.
Reverse transcription is.. RNA —-> DNA
Early research found that there is more to the one-gene-one polypeptide hypothesis, what two more ideas are found? 1. Multiple polypeptides can be produced from a single gene and 2. some genes codes for RNAs that are not translated.
RNA carries the ________ to be translated message
What does RNA have that DNA doesnt? hydroxyl group
In DNA, the template strand is ………. and the non-template strand is……… complementary to RNA. Equivalent to RNA.
What is the region within the mRNA that codes for the polypeptide? reading frame
Can more than one codon specify for an amino acid? Yes
What is the start codon called? methionine
How many codons actually code for proteins? 61
What 4 things define the genetic code? 1. The genetic code is redundant, 2. the genetic code is not ambiguous, 3. particular codons define the reading frame within the mRNA and 4. the genetic code is universal to all life
What does it mean when the genetic code is redundant? It means that multiple codons can code for a particular amino acid and the code is not random
What does it mean by the genetic code not being ambiguous? Any single codon is specific for one amino acid
What 2 regions make up the gene? The transcription unit- which is the template for transcription and the regulatory region- which consists of a promoter serving as a start site for transcription.
What does transcription require in order to work? RNA polymerase complexes
In terms of RNA polymerases, what is the difference between bacteria and eukaryotes? bacteria have only one polymerase, and in eukaryotes, they have a RNA polymerase II and other RNA polymerases that transcribe rRNA and tRNAs.
RNA polymerases polymerize RNA in …. 5' to 3' direction and do not require a primer.
What 3 phases is transcription involved in? Initiation, elongation, and termination
What is initiation? The recruiting of the RNA polymerase to the promoter and locally unwinding the DNA, and the synthesized mRNA will be complementary to the template strand
What is elongation? the polymerization of the transcript, where RNA polymerase heads downstream and new RNA is synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction
What is termination? Ending the transcription reaction, which is the specific site on the DNA that serves as a signal for termination
How is termination different in bacteria and eukaryotes? in bacteria, a terminator hairpin is formed, dislodging the RNA polymerase and in eukaryotes, a series of proteins interact with the polyadenylation signal and cut the RNA
A new synthesized transcript is a ___________ and becomes a mRNA after processing, eventually the modification of the ends allows _______ and ________ pre-mRNA. 5' capping and polyadenylation.
What is splicing? The removal of introns while maintaining exon order
What are the main components that mediate splicing? snRNPs which are composed of snRNAs and proteins.
What must happen in order to form a spliceosome? Multiple snRNPs complex with the pre-mRNA, introns are removed and exons are joined in order.
Why are transfer RNAs important? To interpret the message (mRNA)
How is redundancy resolved in the genetic code? By amino actyl-tRNA synthetase activity and wobble mechanism
What is required for translation to occur? Energy provided by GTP
Do the EPA binding sites exist on the large or small subunit of the ribosome? The large subunit
If the large ribosomal subunit binds to the tRNA, then what does the small ribosomal subunit bind to? It interacts with mRNA at the start codon
In translation, during elongation what happens? 1. Codon recognition, 2. peptide bond formation, and 3. translocation
In translation, what happens during termination? A protein called a release factor is involved, and its job is to recognize the stop codons
What are polyribosomes? They are assemblies involving multiple ribosomes interacting with a single transcript.
Since translation in bacteria is different than in eukaryotes, what is the process actually called? Cotrancriptional translation

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