Civilization Exam 2

Civilization Exam 2

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What is the earliest known dynasty in China? Shang Dynasty
Who challenged the Shang, and won? Zhou
Who was the king of the Shang Dynasty? Wu Ding
Where was the main tomb that was used for Wu Ding? Anyang
Who was Lady Hao? Wu Ding's Wife
What are the oldest surviving scripts of Chinese language? Oracle Bones
Where were the Oracle bones coming from? Yellow River Valley in Anyang
What happened at Anyang? Excavations that uncovered tombs and burial sites
What dynasty defeated the Shang, and ruled from 1050 to 221? Zhou Dynasty
What mandate did the Zhou gain from the Shang? Mandate of Heaven
What is the Mandate of Heaven? The idea that God only intends for one Chinese ruler at a time
What was the Zhou Book of Documents? A court book which claimed that the last of the Shang were very monstoral
When did the Chinese discover the purposes of Iron? By 800
What made iron particularly different than bronze? It could not be kept out of the hands of peasants, because it was so easy to find and more abundant
What is the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, from 771 to 221? It is the beginning of the weakening of the Zhou
What is the Warring States Period? Military revolutions are occurring due to iron, and many Di's and Huang's begin to pop up
What is the Age of a Hundred Schools, around the same time as the Warring States Period? This is an increase in the philosophical study of people
What are the three schools that come out of the Age of a Hundred Schools? Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism
What type of stuff did Confucius believe? Men are good, deep respect for elders, loyalty and respect at home, must follow filial piety, had a difficult time with realism, and believed ritual would help maintain order. Gentleman's class would promote good values
What were Confucian Analects? The teachings of Confucius, but they were written by his students
What is ren? Virtue of good-heartedness
What is the Xiao? Also known as filial piety, the idea that a son or daughter must respect their elders
What is the li? Ritual, etiquette
Who is Mencius? Associate of Confucius, also known as Mengzi, stuck with the idea that man is good, but exaggerates it
Who is Laozi? The creator of Taoism/Daoism. Often shuts down Confucius, and created Daoism as reaction to Confucius. Believed that if you define right or wrong, bad things happen. Do-nothing ideology
What is the Dao de Jing? Prescribed method of living in Daoism by Laozi, the more you define right, the more wrong there is
What is the Zhuangzi? Another book of Daoism, the other is the Dao de Jing, this is written by Master Zhuang
Legalism This is also known as realism, based on the idea that men are bad, has harsh punishment, fear but love for emperor
Who is Han Feizi? Prominent Legalist philosopher, advisor to Zheng in Qin Dynasty, the first to give way to Legalism and its laws, and is forced to kill himself around 233
How did the State of Qin reform itself? Along Legalist lines, abolished aristocracy, and social distinctions were based on military ranks
Who is the Zheng? Better known as Qin Shi Huangdi to show off his power, technically first emperor of China, reforms writing and roads, likes uniformity, and wanted a dynasty of descendents
What were some of Zheng's reforms? Moved everyone to the Capitol, ordered census, standardized weights, measures, coinage, axle lengths, and built the great wall
What are the Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro? Indus river civilizations, both housed about 40,000 people
What is Lothal? Port on the water in the area of Harappa and MD
Who are the Aryans? Mentioned in the Vedas, are Indo-Europeans in India
What is the Rig Veda? Collection of about 1,000 stories in early Indian history
Who is Indra? One of the chief gods in the Rig Veda, god of thunder and lightning, lots like Zeus
Who is Purusha? Cosmic beast, creation story in the Vedas, he is to sacrifice himself to create civilization, and four classes are created
Who are the Dasas? Mentioned in the Vedas, supposed to be separate from the Aryans but are hard to tell apart, they might be the serfs while Aryans are leaders
What are the upanishads? Group of stories the idea of reincarnation relevant
What is the Mahabharata? Gives us the Bhagavad Gita, and Arjuna is seen in this selection
What is the Bhagavadgita? Chariot driver becomes Krishna, Brahma is the one universal everything, Vishnu is open to compassion, should not be hesitant to battle, because you have a duty of caste
What is the Yoga of Action (dharma)? The yoga of law, in its broadest sense
What is the Yoga of Renunciation (asceticism)? Yoga to be able to denounce something, give it up
What is the yoga of devotion (Bhakti)? Yoga to be able to allow extreme devotion to God
Who is Arjuna? Mentioned in the Mahabharata, talks to Krishna in the chariot
Who are Krishna/Vishnu? The incarnations who are talking to Arjuna in the chariot
Who are the top class in the caste system? (Hindu) Brahmin
Who are the warrior class in the caste system? (Hindu) Kshatriyas/Rajanya
Who are the middle class in the caste system? (Hindu) Vaisya
Who were the peasant class in the caste system? (Hindu) Sudra
What is karma? The consequence of your fruit. What comes around, goes around
What is Dharma? The duty of your caste
What is Atman? Real self beyond ego or false self
What is Moksha? The end of suffering in the cycle of reincarnation
What is Brahma? The universal spirit, universal everything, nirvana occurs here
What is samsara? The continuous cycle in which the soul is reborn over and over again according to the law of action and reaction
What is Brahminical Hinduism? The idea that the tangible world is a shadow of the true world of the spirit
Who is Phillip II of Macedonia? Alexander the Great's father, reforms Macedonian Army, attempts to unite the Greeks and Macs to invade Persia, instead goes to war with Athens, is assassinated after having young wife and new daughter
What is the Battle of Chaeronea, in 338? Macs wipe out the Athenians, with the help of Alex the Great
What is the League of Corinth? Other Greek polis join Macs in order to invade Persia, they take Persia, but are overwhelmed with Alex's determination to go further
Who is Alexander the Great? Son of Phillip II of Macedonia, creates the League of Corinth to invade Persia, goes towards India, but comes in contact with war elephants, dies on the way back in Babylon in 323
Who founded Ptolemaic Egypt? Ptolemy, after death of Alex
Who founded Seleucid Persia? Seleucus, after death of Alex
Who founded Antigonid Macedonia? Antigonus, after death of Alex
What is the Hellenistic Age? Spreading of Greek culture throughout the regions, no more city-states/polis, turn to one-man rule and absolutism, art is seen as less ideal and more realistic
What are some examples of Hellenistic advances? Mathematics, astronomy, trade, mechanical design, dissection on the human body
Who is Aristarchus? The most notable of the Hellenistic astronomers; concluded the sun is far larger than Earth, and stars are enormously distant from Earth
Who is Eratosthenes? Used Ptolomeic library, furthered geographical studies using mathematics, discovered earth is spherical, and the circumference is about 24,675 miles
Who is Archimedes? Greatest thinker of the Hellenistic era, pioneered military advancements, discovered how to pull water from water from a lower level to a higher level. Created the pulley, and studied hydrostatics
What is Stoicism? The philosophical thought of Zeno, says that nature is divine will, and that people can only be happy when living in accordance to nature
What are mystery religions? Incorporated aspects of both Greek and non-Greek religion and claimed to save their adherents from the worst that fate could do
What is Koine? This is the Greek language that is best used in business, commerce, and diplomacy for ease of communication
What is Hellenic Art Focuses on idealism and how people are supposed to look, very mythical in view
What is Hellenistic Art Focuses on realism and how people actually look, very matching to what is actually going on
What is Asceticism? The ability to renounce, break free from temptation. Buddha becomes enlightened from it
Who is Siddhartha Gautama? Famous for his teachings of Buddhism, is overwhelmed with the real world, wants to break his cycle as a Hindu Kshatriya
Who is Sudatta? Wealthy associate of Buddha, asks if wealth can work with Buddhism. He uses his wealth righteously, and builds a park for the Buddhists
What is Setting in Motion the Wheel of Law? This was the speech given to 5 monks, by Buddha, about following the Middle Path to Nirvana. He says everything you do in life will lead to suffering
What are the Four Noble Truths? Suffering exists, suffering is linked to desire, realization everything is not perfect (all things must pass), and how to end suffering (follow eightfold path)
What is the Eightfold Path? Right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration
What is Nirvana? A place of complete enlightenment and peace, where Buddha is
What is Theraveda Buddhism? This is the stricter, more orthodox version of Buddhism, might mention going to Brahma and nirvana
What is the Pali Canon? The scriptures of Theraveda Buddhism (more conservative, orthodox)
What is Mahayana Buddhism? More encompassing, faithful Buddhism, makes Buddha sanctified, and nirvana is a place/paradise/heaven where Buddha lives
Who is Chandragupta Maurya? Founded the Maurya Empire in India, emerges as royalty after Alex's invasion, his state is the first known state in India, his Grandson is Ashoka. Since his Grandson becomes a Buddhist, the two versions of Buddhism develop
What is Pataliputra? This is the Capital of the Maurya Empire which was founded by Chandragupta Maurya
Who is Ashoka? The Grandson of Chandragupta, is leader after his Grandfather, campaigns for 10 years in the Kalinga, becomes a Buddhist, puts Buddhism on the map, and sees the formation of the two Buddhisms
What is Kalinga? The eastern coastal area in which the Mauryas, specifically Ashoka, campaigned in
What is the Hindu Dharma? One's role in society and family, varies by their caste
What is the Buddhist Dharma? The collective teachings of Buddha, and how the world works
Who are the Etruscans? An Italian civilization, fairly advanced, that comes in contact with the Greeks, and are masters of metal. Adopted Phoenician Greek alphabet, but we cannot read their language. Probably not indo-european, and market-oriented. Ruled over Romans until 507
What is the Roman Senate? After Romans stood up to Etruscans and won, they developed an oligarchy in their city of Res Publica
Who are Consuls? Two magistrates elected in Rome, could veto the other's actions, so they had to be unanimous, have no limit on their power
Who are Tribunes? This is the people that the Plebeians elect to represent them as a watchdog in the Senate
What is the Comitia Centuriata? Bodies that were made of citizens, and vote was based on how a majority of the century voted
What is the Concilium Plebis? This is the body in which the average people, the plebeians, could vote on laws and magistrates
What is the Celtic Sack of Rome in 387? This was the invasion of the Celts (anyone north of Rome) in Rome, this hit the patricians (rich) the hardest, and paved the way for more leadership by the plebeians
What is the Lex Hortensia? This was the bill that gave the Plebeian senators legislative power, but the Senate can only meet when it wants to
Who are the Plebeians? The poorer people, usually got the raw end of the deal, emboldened by events such as the Sack of Rome and the Lex Hortensia
Who are the Patricians? The richer people, typically held power, were largely in control of the plebeians, however made concessions at times. Were badly harmed in the sack of Rome
What is the Struggle of Orders (509-287)? This is the struggle of the Plebeians to get control of the government in Roman Republic. Plebeians get their own assembly, elected tribunes, consul, and gets the Lex Hortensia passed
What is the Res Publica? Means "republic", but was also the city that formed after the Romans defeated the Etruscans
What does the SPQR stand for? Senatus Populusque Romanus (senate and roman people), and the theory of shared republican government
What were the degrees of Roman Citizenship? (Descending) Civis Romani, Civis Liberti, Peregrini (latini), Provinciales
Who is Pyrrhus of Epirus? This is the kind of the small Hellenistic kingdom of Epirus in 280, protects the Greeks in Italy from the Romans, wins against Romans in every battle, but gives up because they cannot defeat the Romans as a whole
What are the Punic Wars? These are wars between Rome and Carthage, throughout the 200s, largely over trade, in which Rome gained its first territories outside of Italy
What is Carthage? Phoenician outpost that is threatened by Rome and controls Sicily, goes to war with Rome in the Punic Wars
Who is Hannibal? Leader on the Carthaginian side in the 2nd Punic War, sometimes defeats Rome at places such as Cannae, perfected the weak-center tactic, but is eventually beaten outside of Carthage
What is Battle of Cannae? This is an overwhelming defeat of the Romans, in which about 40,000 of them died. It is said that Hannibal hamstrung them
Who is Scipio Africanus? Roman General who wanted to attack in Africa to distract Hannibal out of Italy
Who is Cornelia? She is the daughter of Scipio Africanus, the mother of the Gracchi, married a plebeian named Tiberius Sr. at the disapproval of her father
What is the Battle of Zama? This is the battle at which the Romans defeat Hannibal outside of Carthage
Who is Cato the Elder? Hard-working man from the country, decides to enter politics in Rome following the Cursus Honorem, is very conservative, believes Greeks are diluting Roman values
What is Graecia Capta ferum victorem? Written by poet Horace, means "The Greek captives conquered the untainted victors
Who are the Gracchi Brothers? Grandsons of Scipio Africanus, both want reforms (Tiberius – land) (Gaius – welfare), but are both killed by the Senate for being too popular with the plebeians, this is significant because the Roman Constitution is being unwound
Who is Gaius Marius? Reformer who promised landless men land if they joined the army to take down an African rebel king. After Senate failed to follow through with the promise, armies looked to their generals instead of the Senate
What is Cursus Honorem? This is what running for politics in Rome is called, it is followed by most who enter politics such as Cato, requires different jobs and posts on the way to power
Who is Julius Caesar? Very powerful Roman man, who starts as Aedile, becomes Pontifex Maximus, then more powerful, has support of lower classes, and is assassinated on the Ides of March
Who is Pompey? Member of the First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar, associated of Sulla, does not like that Caesar takes some of his support of the Plebes
Who is Brutus? Opponent of Julius Caesar who applauds his assassination, proclaims it as the Ides of March, justifies the death of JC, his body is never found
What is the Ides of March? This is the day that Julius Caesar was killed (March 15th, 44 BC)
Who was Marc Antony? He was an associate of Julius Caesar who was very saddened after his death, became an enemy of Octavian (aka Augustus Caesar), let his love of Cleopatra of Egypt take over, and ran off the battlefield with Cleopatra, later they killed themselves
Who was Octavian Caesar Augustus? Nephew of Julius Caesar (received his name), defeats Marc Antony in battle of Actium in 31, seizes Egypt for the Roman Republic after he beats Marc and Cleopatra
Who was Cleopatra VII? She was an Egyptian, who had a child with Julius Caesar, and later fell in love with Marc Antony
What was the Battle of Actium? The battle in which Octavian Caesar Augustus beats Marc Antony, and allows OCA to take Egypt
What is Princeps Civitatis? The title of "first citizen", belonged to Augustus Caesar
What is Pax Augustana? 200 year period of peace created by the Emperor Augustus, lasted from 27 BC to the death of Emperor Marcus Aurelius around 180 AD

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