Earth Science Oceanography

Question Answer
Many of the basic tools of modern oceanography were developed to meet military needs during WWII
The average mass of dissovled salts in 1000 grams of sea water is 35 grams
These factors would cause salinity to increase evaporation and freezing of sea water
One cause of water mixing in the mixed layer strong winds
diatoms are the most abundant kind kind of phytoplankton
The deep waters of the ocean are poor in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide
Today ships use a devise called a precision depth recorder to find distance to seafloor
The shelf-edge is the boundary between the continental shelf and the continental slope
Hudson, Monterey and Hatteras are examples of submarine canyons
The source of most of the material found on the surface of the abyssal plain is continental rivers
Sinking volcanic islands and developing coral reefs are related to the formation of atolls
The Challenger Deep is the deepest location in the ocean. It is located in the Marianas
The mid-Atlantic Ridge is broken into offset pieces at fracture zones
The Sargasso Sea is an area of relatively calm seas in the N. Atlantic
The current that would help increase the speed of a ship traveling from the U.S. to the British Isles Gulf Stream
A countercurrent Cromwell
Freezing increases the density of sea water because salt is left behind when water freezes
The cause of turbidity current density is mixing with sediment
The density currents that originate in the polar regions are primarily caused by cooling and freezing
Upwelling is important to sea life because it brings nutrients to the surface water
The direction of rotation o a ring located on the ocean side of the Gulf Stream is conterclockwise. False, clockwise
The Atlantic ocean extends from the Americas to Europe and Africa True
When salt is mined from sea water, the energy needed to evaporate the sea water to get the salt comes from electricity. False, sunlight
Ocean currents that flow in the opposite direction to wind-related currents are counter-currents. True
The upper parts of submarine canyons are thought to have formed during the Ice Age when sea level was lower than it is today. True
Zooplankton are microscopic animals. True
Man, vehicles, using deep-towed vehicles as a base, will soon make it possible for oceanographers to study the seafloor without leaving a surface vessel. False, ridges
Evaporation and cooling cause the density of sea water to increase. True
Guyots are thought to be ships that have had their tops sliced off by wave action. False, seamounts
The water that sinks in the polar regions is the only source of oxygen for the animals of the deep sea. True
The water layer of rapid temperature change is called the monocline. False, thermocline
British oceanography laboratory of the 1870's was the HMS Titanic. False, HMS Challenger
Sediments common in deep ocean trenches are red clays. True
Glacial-marine sediments are a source of muds. True
Compared to the average elevation of the continents, the average depth of the ocean is about ________ times greater. Four
The correct proportion of land above sea level to seafloor is _____ percent land to percent water. 30
Two factors used to identify a water mass are water temperature and ______. Salinity
________ can be economically removed from the sea water. Magnesium
The mixed layer is thickest at _______ latitudes. Middle
One method of obtaining a record of seafloor sediment is with a ________ corer. Hydrolic-piston
Passive continental margins have ______. Coastal plains
Deep-sea trench _______ found on active continental margins. Is
Most deep-sea trenches are found in the _____ocean. Pacific
_______ may change from pebbles at the bottom to fine sand at the top. Turbidates
________ and westerlies are most involved in forming ocean currents. Trade winds
In _______ a seasonal change in wind direction results in a change in the direction of an ocean current. India
The cause of the Gulf Stream rings is _______. eddies
The dense fog off Newfoundland occurs when warm, moist air from the Gulf Stream blows over the ________ current. Labrador
The cause of the density current that flows over the Straight of Gibralter is ________. evaporation
Compare the food source of a clam that lives in shallow water near the shoreline with the food source of a clam that lives near a black smoker. The that lives near the shore depends upon sunlight because it eats phyoplankton that grow in sunlight. The food source for the clam that lives near the black smoker is the bacteria that convert iron sulfide particles into food.
How are submarine canyons and graded beds related? Explain your answer. Both are the result of Turbidity currents. Submarine canyons are thought to form when turbidity currents carve deep gulleys as they sweep down the continental slopes. Graded beds are deposits made by turbidity currents on the deep sea floor.
Compare the general temperature and direction of flow of the current that flows off the east coast of the US with that temperature and direction of flow of the current that flows off the west coast of the US. The currents of the east coast of US are warm flowing North. The currents off the west coast are cold flowing south.

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