Jazz Test 2

Jazz Test 2

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Term Definition
Know Louis Armstrong’s contributions to jazz and his roles changed the rhythmic pattern to reflect jazz, vocal improvisation, solos instead of group improvisation. Jazz harmonic foundation, emphasis on rhythm, timbre and swing
Louis role with pop music Pop- made tin pan alley music into popular, turned corny songs into ballads Jazz purists said he was not authentic and diluting jazz
What was Armstrong’s relationship to blues music and how did it influence jazz? He used it to influence the rhythmic pattern and emotion behind his music. He used growls, which all stem from Bessie Smith, a blues diva from the early 1920s.
What innovations did Armstrong bring regarding improvisation? He made improvisation a stable for jazz musicians, he made it a solo thing instead of collective
Know how Louis Armstrong transformed jazz singing. He added a new timbre, and scat singing- nonsense words that add to the overall quality of the music. Meant to sound like a horn
How did Armstrong influence the repertoire of jazz? He brought tin pan alley music to popular ballads, turned them into jazz standards.
How did the Great Depression influence record companies? Negatively, people stopped buying records and went to jukeboxes and radios. Decca and victor survived. Race record labels died out completely
How did swing music affect the employment of musicians during the 1930’s? It provided stable work, you could make a living. There were thousands of swing bands. Employment went up but you had to be able to sight read, improvise and dress nice.
In terms of income, how were profits divided between record company executives and jazz performers? The executives kept all the money from record sales, plays and royalties. Musicians paid small fee for recordings. Melrose brothers ripped off jelly roll morton by adding lyrics
Know what rhythmic feel became the standard for swing music. Simple 4 4 beat, 4 quarter notes on bass, guitar drums
What areas are considered the ‘southwest’ in terms of jazz history? Kansas, texas, arkansas, tennessee, oklahoma
Know what the basic rhythmic pulse of boogie-woogie piano is. 8 beats double of the swing, influences count basie. Included in spirituals to swing
Who was John Hammond and what did his ‘From Spirituals to Swing’ concert do? wealthy white music manager from new york who sought to break down racial barriers and end stereotypes. carnegie hall – all the contributions to music that blacks had. Started with spiritutals, included boogie woogie and swing everything. 1938.
hammonds artists? Goodman, smith, franklin, dylan
What were territory bands? Territory bands occupy a specific geographic location. They are within a days travel of several bars and musical opportunities. It is a hard lifestyle and constant travel, poor pay
Which innovative orchestration technique did Mary Lou Williams use in her tune ‘Walkin’ and A-Swingin?’ Putting a mutted trumpet with the saxophones. Andy Kirk and 12 clouds of joy. She became pianist and then professor at duke
Who was Count Basie? He is a bandleader and pianist who is known for cultivating kansas city style piano and jazz. His most famous piece is one oclock jump. King of southwest jazz. Simple harmoneys, trained in harlem stride but played as a minimalist
Know what a commonwealth band is. These are bands that have no leader. Decisions are made by group vote. Blue Devils. Doesn't work out well.
What was one characteristic of jazz musicians of Kansas City that was formed from the jam session? Head arrangements and chord extensions: riff comes in and notes are harmonized one note per instrument, they didn’t want to step on someone elses line.
What two main events in world history are the bookends for the Swing Era? World War 2 and Great Depression
What was the racial climate for the entertainment industry during the Swing Era? It was improving but it was still pretty bad, whites and blacks still not able to play with each other on stage. Benny Goodman included Teddy WIlson a black piano player. Then Lynol Hammond was on Vibes and he was black.
first integrated band? Gene krupa had 1st integrated band.
Which major jazz bandleader/composer’s recordings did Mary Lou Williams learn to play jazz from? Duke Ellington and Jelly Roll Morton
What is the title of the most famous Count Basie tune ever? One oclock jump
. What is scat singing? Nonsense singing , origins in NOLA
What influential saxophonist, whose instrument was the C-melody Sax, influence later musicians like Lester Young and Benny Carter? Frankie Trambauer
What technological invention helped to make the recording industry successful during the Swing Era? Juke Box
What was the Lindy Hop? A popular dance. Acrobatic, focus on hips and legs. Break aways for dancers to solo
Benny Goodman reintroduced the concept of small groups in jazz. Whom did he model this from? Jelly Roll Mortons small group of munchkin donuts!
Teddy Wilson, the pianist in Goodman’s combos modeled himself after what early jazz pianist? Earl HInes Salon Style sparkles in weather bird
What is a head arrangement? A song that is not written down but known and practiced by musicians.
Who is Coleman Hawkins? He is a famous saxophonist. Cool dude. Father of tenor sax. He learned cello first and brought leggato influence on sax. Darker sounding
Basies band: southwest sound, rooted in rhythm, head arrangements, background riffs, loose sound, harmonically simple, call and response all american rhythm section
all american rhythm section Freddy Greene (guitar) Count (Piano) Jo Jones (Drums) Walter Page (Bass)
Ellingtons band: More polished and refined, programmatic meaning something else, compositional More polished and refined, programmatic meaning something else, compositional
Hotter than that: Armstrong and Hot 5..
Weather Bird: Armstrong and Hines
West End Blues Armstrong and Hot 5.
Blue Lou: Fletcher Henderson
Singin’ the blues: Frankie Trumbauer and Bix Biderbecke
Dinah: Benny Goodman Quartet
Stardust: Artie Shaw and his Orchestra
Annie Laurie: Jimmie Lunceford and his preseteen perfectionist orchestra
It’s All Right Baby: Pete Johnson and Joe Turner
Walkin’ And A Swingin’: Andy Kirk and his 12 clouds of joy feat. Mary Lou WIlliams
One O’Clock Jump: Count Basie
Mood Indigo ellington
conga brava duke ellington

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