L2 ActiveIQ PT

L2 ActiveIQ PT

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What is a compound exercise? Exercise involving more than 1 joint usually larger muscle groups
What is an Isolation exercise? Single joint exercise involves smaller muscles
Define Concentric Muscle shortening under tension
Define Eccentric Muscle lengthening under tension
What is Reciprocal Inhibition The antagonist relaxes to enable agonist to contract
What is a Synergist Smaller muscles involved in movement
What is a Fixator Muscle that Maintain posisition /stabilises movement
What is an Agonist Prime mover
What is Hypertrophy Muscle size
What is Atrophy Muscle wastage
Benefits of Resitanace training: Neural factors x3 Increase in motor unit activation & recruitment Increase discharge frequency (speed of msg to muscle from nerves)Decrease Neural inhibition (brain telling you cana??t)
Benefits of resistance training: Bio-chemical x2 Increase in ATP & CP storesIncrease in Testosterone & growth hormone
When does Doms occur? Within 12-72 hours
Which type of exercise is most likely to cause DOMs x 3 New exercises High volumeA focus on Eccentric loading
What is periodisation? The planned progression & manipulation of training variable over a prolonged period
What is reversibility a?˜Use it or lose ita?? an adaptation from exercise is not permanent. The body can return to previous state if not maintained.
How many chambers in the heart 42 Atrium2 Ventricle
The muscular walls of the heart are called? Myocardium
What is Pulmonary Circulation oxygenated blood – Pulmonary vein – left atrium deoxygenated blood – R ventricle – Pulmonary artery – Lungs –
What is Stystemic circulation deoxygenated blood – vena cava – R atriumOxygenated blood – left ventricle – aorta – body –
What is the largest vein in the body Vena cava
What is the difference between arteries & veins Arteries carry blood (oxygenated) under high pressure and therefore have thicker muscular wallsArteries carry blood away from the heart except the Pulmonary artery.
Where is the heart? Just left of your sternum
What does deoxygenated blood do? Carries waste carbon dioxide to the lungs for expiration
What are capillaries Small blood vessels with thin walls that deliver blood, nutrients & gases to the body.
What is blood pooling? Occurs when blood in the veins a?˜poolsa?? in the extremities (usually lower limbs)Causes feelings of nausea, dizziness, fainting & vomiting
What can help prevent blood pooling? Venous return, mechanism for the return flow of blood to the heart.Contraction of calf muscles assists this mechanism
What is blood pressure The measure of force that is applied to the artery walls as blood flows through
What is systolic blood pressure The measure of pressure during Vasoconstriction (blood vessel narrowing)
What is diastolic blood pressure Measure of pressure during vasodilation (vessels widening)
Optimal blood pressure 120/80
Define Kinaesthetic Practically
Purpose of lungs Provide atmospheric oxygen to the body & remove waste carbon dioxide
The passage of air during inhalation Nose/mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
What happens at the alveoli Oxygen in the alveoli diffuses into the deoxygenated blood via capillaries. Waste carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli from the blood in the capillaries
Main muscles involved in breathing Diaphragm & intercostals
Describe mechanical process of breathing Diaphragm contracts down, intercostals lift rib cage, lungs air pressure drops, air forces into lungs, diaphragm relaxes, rib cage drops, air forced out.
What is the process of breathing called Gaseous Exchange
What are the functions of the skeleton x5 Bony framework Levers for locomotionBlood cell productionProtection of vital organsMineral storageSoft tissue attachment
Bones of the Axial skeleton Skull (cranium, facial bones), cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, saccrum, coccyx, Ribs
Bones of appendicular skeleton Clavicle, scapula, humerus ulna radius, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, ilium, pubis, ischium, femur patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
What are the 5 bone classifications Long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
Name the wider part at either end of a bone Epiphysis
What is the outer membrane (skin) of bone called Periosteum
What is the diaphysis The narrow shaft of the bone
What is Hyalinge cartilage Smooth tissue covering both ends of long bones. Prevents wear & tear
What is ossification Bone growthOsteoclasts clear away old tissue Osteoblasts build bone
3 common spinal deviations Kyphosis – increased forward curvature of thoracic Lordosis- increased backward curvature of lumbarScoliosis- excess lateral/sideways curvature
What is an immovable interlocking joint Fibrous – skull
What is a slightly moveable joint Cartilaginous – spine
What is a freely moveable joint Synovial- shoulders, elbows, knees, ankles
Purpose of ligaments Connect bone to bone across a joint
Purpose of a tendon To connect muscle to bone
Name 6 synovial joint types Ball & socketPivotGlidingHingeSaddleEllipsoid
Movement & example hinge joint Bending flexion & extensionElbow & Knee
Movement & example pivot joint Rotation around an axis Neck – atlas c1 & c2Forearm-radius & ulna
Movement & example of saddle joint Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, prevents rotationBottom of Thumb at wrist – carpometacarpal
Movement & example gliding joint 2 bones move across one another Mid carpal (wrist) & mid tarsal (ankle)
Movement & example ellipsoid joint Similar to ball & socket with less romMA©tacarpo-phalangeal
Where does lateral flexion occur Spine
Definition of muscle strength Force
What is pronation Turning palm down
What is supination Turning palm up
What is dorsiflexion Lift foot to shin
What is fasciculi Bundles of muscle fibres
What is epimysium Tissue enclosing muscle belly
What is perimysium Tissue enclosing fasciculi (muscle fibres)
What is endomysium Tissue around muscle fibres
What are myofibrils Proteins actin & myosin
Slow muscle fibres are Type 1, Slow to fatigue, low force generation, red in colour, aerobic, high mitochondria
Fast twitch muscle fibres are Type 2, fast to fatigue, high force generation, anaerobic, white in colour
Intermediate muscle fibres can Gain fast or slow twitch characteristics
Anterior muscles Deltoid biceps brachii pectoralis major obliques recrus abdominis hip adductors tibialis anterior serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, quadriceps
Posterior muscles Rhomboid minor & major, posterior deltoids, triceps brachii, gluteus Maximus, hip abductors (gluteals), gastrocnemius, Silenus, hamstrings, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi, trapezius
Name the core muscles Transverse abdominus, multifidius (spine), diaphragm, pelvic floor
What age range are most susceptible to growth plate fractures 14-16
Describe aerobic energy Uses inhaled oxygen, glycogen & fatProduces energy for a long timeUp to 60% intensityType 1 slow twitch fibresMarathon running, jogging
Define Lactate system AnaerobicSustains activity 1-3 mins60-95% intensityType 2 fast twitch muscle fibresFast running or cycling, circuits
CrA©atine Phosphate system (CP) 0-10 secs duration95-100% intensity Recovery 30secs- 5 minsType 2 fast twitchSprinting, jumping throwing
What is Sarcomere Working unit of muscle
What is motor unit recruitment The motor unit is a nerve & the group of muscle fibres it talks to
Which motor units do cv training benefit Type 1 motor units
What is high blood pressure called Hypertension
What is the age range bones are fully formed 25-30
Why do we have curves in the spine To reduce impact stress
Under what control are skeletal muscles Voluntary (somatic) control
What are the components of motor fitness Coordination, agility, balance, power, reaction time, speed
What is the role of the transverse abdominals To compress & support the abdominal area
What could cause hyper scoliosis Always carrying on one side
Describe blood flow through the right side of circulatory system Vena cava-R atrium-R ventricle-Pulmonary artery-lungs
Describe blood flow through the left side of circulatory system Pulmonary vein – L atrium – L ventricle- aorta
Which hormone softens ligaments during pregnancy Relaxin
What is age related muscle loss Sarcopenia
What is the prime hip extensor Gluteus Maximus
Which joint can elevate Scapula
Define ectomorph Naturally thinLittle body fat/muscle massBest for weight bearing aerobic activities
Define mesomorph Naturally lean, broad shoulders Good power to weight ratio activities
What is endomorph PrA©disposA©s to fat storageReasonable degree of muscle mass
What type of exercise is essential to reduce risk of osteoporosis Weight bearing
What activity reduces the risk of atherosclerosis Regular
What are hypo kinetic diseases related to Inactivity
What is RPE a measure of Intensity
Define the role of protein Building blocks for growth
Define purpose of carbohydrates Provide energy stored as glycogen
Recommended weekly fish intake 2 ,1 oily
What is the 1 rep max % for muscular endurance <67%
What is periosteum Skin around the ends of the bones
What type of bone is epiphysis Cancellous
Name the central cavity of the bone Medullary cavity (yellow marrow)
Where in the bone do you find red marrow In the epiphysis
Name the valve separating the atrium & ventricle Atrioventricular separates the atria & ventricles prevents back flow into atria
Name the valve separating the right & left ventricles Semilunar

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