Med Term 11

Med Term 11

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Mitral valve Valve between the left atrium and left ventricle; bicuspid valve
Pulmonary valve Positioned between right ventricle and pulmonary artery.O2- blood is pumped through pulmonary valve by contraction of right ventricle, then it enters pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary artery Carries o2- blood from heart to lungs, vessel that divides in 2, branches to each lung. Only artery in body that carries O2- blood.
Pulmonary veins One of 2 pairs of vessels carrying o2+ blood from lungs to left atrium of heart.Only veins that carry o2+ blood
Aorta Largest artery in the body, branches to carry blood all through the body.
Aortic valve Left ventricle propels blood through it into aorta.Closes to prevent return of blood to left ventricle.
Left ventricle Propels blood through aortic valve onto aorta.Has thickest WALLS of all four heart chambers (3x's the thickness of right ventricular wall.)Pumps blood with great force to enable blood to travel through arteries to all parts of body.
Left atrium Newly oxygenated blood enters left atrium from pulmonary veins. The walls contract to force blood through the mitral valve into left ventricle.
Right side of heart O2- blood enters and travels through it into pulmonary artery.
Capillaries Tinest of blood vessels, carry nutrient-rich O2+ blood from arteries and arterioles to body cells.Waste products such as carbon dioxide and water pass out of cells into thin-walled capillaries
Endothelial cells Actively secrete substances that prevent clotting and regulate the tone of bloid vessels.
Examples of endothelial secretions Endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF)Endothelin (a vasoconstrictor)
Inferior vena cava Carries bloid from lower part of body
Superior vena cava Drains blood from upper portion of body
Venae cavae Inferior/ superior return blood to right atrium of heart from tissue capillaries.The two largest veins. O2- Blood passes into heart through these 2.
Right atrium O2- blood enters right atrium through the venae cava.Thin-walled upper right chamber of the heart. Contracts to force blood through tricuspid valve.
Ventricles 2 lower chambers of heart.
Atria 2 upper chambers of heart
Pulse Beat of heart as felt through walls of arteries.
Systemic circulation Flow of blood from heart to tissue capillaries and back to heart
What color is blood? Bright red in arteries (O2+).Dark red/ maroon in veins (w/ carbon dioxide).Appear blue from outside the body because the color reflects off the skin.
Valves Structure in veins or in heart that closes an opening temporarily so blood flows only in one direction. Veins have them.
Venules Small veins, O2-. Waste-filled O2- blood flows back into heart through them..
Carotid arteries Supply blood to head and neck
Arteties ( branches) examples Axillary, splenic, gastric, renal, brachial, carotid.
Veins Thin-walled vessel that carries O2- blood from body tissues and lungs back to heart.Contain valves to prevent backflow of blood.Have little elastic tissue than arteries.Blood pressure is much lower than in arteries.
Pulmonary circulation Circulation of blood through vessels from the heart to lungs and back to heart again.
Systole Contraction phase of heartbeat.2nd phase of heartbeat, when WALLS of right and left ventricles contract to pump blood into pulmonary artery and aorta.Tricuspid and mitral valves ate closed, preventing backflow into atria.Pulmonary and aortic valves a
Arteries Large blood vessels that carry O2+ blood away from heart to all parts of body.Strong, elastic, thick WALLS ate lined with connective tissue, muscle tissue, elastic fibers, and endothelium.
Aorta Largest single artery in the body, divides into arteries, (branches).Moves up at first, then arches over so really and runs downward (descending aorta) just in front of vertebral column.
Left side of heart O2+ blood enters from this side from pulmonary artery.Muscles on this side pump blood out of heart through the aorta.
Carbon dioxide Co2 Gas released by body cells, transported by veins to heart, and then lungs for exhalation.Waste product, passes into tissue capillaries from cells at same time that O2 enters.
Tissue capillaries Smaller than arterioles, near body cells.O2 leaves blood and passes through thin capillary walls to enter body cells, where food is broken down in presence of O2; energy is released.
Arterioles Smaller branches of arteries, thinner than arteries, carry O2+ blood to capillaries into tissues.
Endothelium Innermost layer of epithelial cells, lining of blood vessels.Secrete factors affecting size of blood vessels, reducing blood clotting, and promoting growth of blood vessels.
Tricuspid valve Located between right atrium and right ventricle.Contains flaps of the valves; has 3 leaflets (cusps) which form a one-way passage to keep blood flowing in one direction.Stays shut as blood is pushed from pulmonary artery into pulmonary artery, preven
Pericardial cavity Between visceral and parietal pericardial layers.Normally contains 10-15 ml of pericardial fluid, lubricating membranes of heart.
Angi/o Vessel
Arter/o Arteri/o Artery
Ather/o Yellow plaque, fatty substance.Atheroma: collections of plaque that protrude into opening of an artery, weakening muscle lining.
Atherosclerosis Major form of arteriosclerosis in which deposits of yellow plaque (atheromas) contain cholesterol and lipids are found within lining of artery.
Atri/o Atrium, upper heart chamber
Cardi/oHypertrophic cardiomyopathy Heart. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is abnormal thickening of heart muscle, usually in left ventricle. Ventricle has to work harder to pump blood. Congenital, or from aging, or hypertension, or idiopathic.
TachycardiaSupraventricular tachycardia Faster than 100 beats oer minute.Supraventricular tachycardia (involves rapid heartbeats coming from the atria and causing palpitation (abnormal sensations in the chest).
Cardiogenic shockShock Failure of heart in its pumping action.Shock= circulatory failure associated with inadequate delivery of O2 and nutrients to body tissues.
Cholesterol/oHypercholesterolemia Cholesterol, a lipid substance.Hypercholesteremia: stations are drugs that block a key enzyme in production of cholesterol by liver.
Coron/oCoronary arteries HeartCoronary arteries: arteries that come down over top of heart like a crown.
Oxygen Gas that enters blood through the lungs and travels to heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.
Pacemaker (Sinoatrial node) Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat.
Artificial cardiac pacemaker Electronic device implanted in chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
Coronary arteries Deoxygenated blood Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry O2+ blood to heart muscle.Deoxygenated blood: oxygen poor blood.
Pulse in blood pressure Bronchial artery in upper arm compressed by air pressure in bag.
Pump station # 1 Right side of heart, sends O2- blood to the lungs, where blood picks up O2 and releases its carbon dioxide.
Pump station # 2 Newly O2+ blood returns to left side of heart from right side to pump station # 2 and forces O2+ blood out to all parts of body.
3 layers of heart # 1 Endicardium: smooth layer of endothelial cells, lines interior of heart and heart valves.
3 layers of heart # 2 Myocardium: middle muscular layer of heart wall, thickest layer.
3 layers of heart # 3 Pericardium: fibrous and membraneous double layered sac surrounds heart.
Diastole Relaxation phase of heartbeat, when ventricles relax and blood flows into heart from venae cavae and pulmonary veins.Tricuspid and mitral valves open allowing blood to pass from right and left atria unto ventricles.Pulmonary and aortic valves closed.
Atrioventricular node (AV node) Specialized tissue in wall between atria. Electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) THrough the AV node and the arterioventricular bundle (bundle of His) toward the ventricles.Region within interatrial septum receiving an electrical current
Atrioventricular bundle ( bundle of His) Specialized muscle fibers connecting atria with ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them.Divides into left and right bundle branches.
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) Record used to detect electrical charges in heart muscle, electricity flowing through heart.Normal tracing of ECG shows 5 waves (deflections) which represent electrical charges as a wave of excitation spreads through heart.P, QRS, T waves (deflectipns
Normal sinus rhythm Heart rhythm originating in sinoatrial node and traveling through the heart.Rate in patients at rest of 60-100 beats per minute.
Lubb-dubb Closure of heart valves, audible sounds.Lubb- closure of tricuspid valve and mitral valves at beginning of systole.Dubb- closure of aortic and pulmonary valves at end of systole.
Blood pressure Force that blood exerts on arterial walls.Measures by a sphygmomanometer
Systolic blood pressure Higher blood pressure 1st, when a listener first heard the sounds of the pulse beats, after air escapes from bag and blood pressure lowers at cuff, restoring blood flow.It is pressure in artery when left ventricle is contracting to force blood into aort
Disatole Blood that is O2- (Oxygen poor)
Diastolic blood pressure Pressure in artery when ventricles relax and heart fills, receiving blood from venae cava and pulmonary veins.Air continues to escape, sounds become louder, then change in sound from loud to soft occurs, producing diastolic pressure reading.
Left and right bundle branch Form the conduction myofibers that extend through the ventricle walls and contract on stimulation.
PericardialVisceral pericardialParietal pericardium A fibrous and membraneous double layered sac surrounds heart.Visceral pericardium: adhering to the heart.Parietal pericardium: lining outer fibrous coat.
Apex of the heart Conical lower tip of the heart.
SeptaSeptum Divides a cavity. In heart, partitions that 4 chambers are separated by.Interstitial septum: separates two upper chambers (atria)Interventricular septum: muscular wall, lies between two lower chambers (ventricles).
Percutaneous coronary intervention Balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open it; stents are put in place.Includes Percutaneous transluminary coronary angioplasty, stents, laser angioplasty (laser vaporizes plaque from catheter tip) and atherectomy
StentsDrug eluting stents Stents: expandable slotted metal tubes that serve as permanent scaffolding devices.Drug eluting stents:Coated with polymers that release drugs to prevent scar tissue formation & restenosis.
Transcatheter aortic valve replacementTAVR Placement of a balloon-tipped expandable aortic heart valve into body by a catheter, through femoral artery. A stent valve device is inserted.Used to treat aortic stenosis; newer technique.
Thrombolytic therapy Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis.Tissue plasmogin activator and streptokinase are drugs given within 12 hours of heart attack. They restore blood flow, limit damage.
Heart transplantation Donor heart is transferred to a recipient.A left ventricular assist device is used while patient waits ( a booster pump implanted in chest with cannulae (flexible tubes) from left ventricle to ascending aorta).
Extra corporeal circulation Heart-lung machine diverts blood from heart and lungs while heart is repaired. Uses extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (oxygenated outside of body, then returns blood).
Endarterectomy Surgical removal of plaque from inner layer of an artery.Removal of atheromas (fatty deposits) and thrombosis.Carotid endarterectomy: procedure to remove plaque buildup from carotid artery. Reduces stroke risk
Cardio version A technique used for defibrillation with lower energy to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and supraventricular tachycardia.
Defibrillation Brief discharges of electricity are applied across chest to stop dysarrythmias (ventricular fibrillation).Patients at risk for sudden cardiac death are implanted with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or automatic cardioverter defibrillator.
Catheter ablation Brief delivery of radio frequency energy to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias using a catheter inserted through vein in leg to vena cava into heart.Treats SVT, atrial flutter, AF, VT
Coronary artery bypass Grafting (CABG) Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.Uses mammary, radial, and saphenous (leg) vein grafts.Uses small incisions, minimally invasive CABG surgery, and a heart-lung machine or a beating heart off pump.
Cardiac catheterizationIntravascular ultrasound (IVUS)Functional flow reserve Thin, flexible tube is guided into heart via a vein or artery. Contrast may be injected (femoral/ radial artery) and x-rays taken of heart/ blood vesselsIntravascular ultrasound may be performed along with it to evaluate vessel narrowing and measurement
Electrocardiography Recording of electricity flowing through heart performed by telemetry (electronic transmission of data) tele= distant.
Stress test exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress) Uses 3- minute treadmill periods/ elevations with continual monitoring of vital signs and ECG rhythms.Diagnoses CAD, left ventricular function
Holder monitoring An EGG device is worn during a 24- hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias.
Cardiac MRIDetectsInter.Gadolinium Images of heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field in multiple planes.Detects ventricular function, fibrosis, patency of peripheral/ coronary arteries. Interferes with pacemakers.Gadolinium: contrast injectable agent.
Magnetic Resonance angiography MRI giving highly detailed images of blood vessels.
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)Can detect C, MF, diff. Betw. I H D and C Images show bloid flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose.Can detect CAD, myocardial function, difference between ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy.
Echo cardiography Echoes generated by high frequency sound waves produce images of thr heart, showing structureand movement.
Transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) A transducer in the esophagus provides ultrasound and Doppler information.Detects cardiac masses, prosthetic valve function, aneurysms, pericardial fluid.
Doppler ultrasound studies Sound waves measure blood flow within vessels, echoes bounce off red blood cells.
Duplex ultrasound Combines Doppler and conventional ultrasound to allow images of the structure of blood blood vessels and to measure the speed of flow of blood.Diagnoses occlusion, aneurysms, varicose veins, other.
Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT) Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD.
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) Video equipment and a computet produce x-ray images of blood vessels1) take image and store on computer2) inject contrast, take 2nd image3) comparison of 2 images
Computed tomography angiography CTA)Cross, hun. 3-dimensional x-rays of heart and. Coronary arteries using computed tomographyCross sectional views, hundreds of images per second
Angiography X-ray imaging of bloid vessels after injection of contrast into a small peripheral vein with small needle.
Arteriography X-ray imaging of arteries after injection of contrast with a catheter into aorta or any artery.
Lipoprotein electrophoresis1.2.LD2NDNormal L
Lipoprotein electrophoresis1.2.LDHDNormal L Lipoproteins (fats and proteins combined) are physically separated and measured in blood sample.1.LDL (LOW density lipoprotein) high levels lead to atherosclerosis 2. HDL (high density lipoprotein) high levels protect from atherosclerosis.Normal LDL:
Statins Reduce risk of heart attack, stroke, cardiovascular death by lowering cholesterol production in liver.
Lipid tests (Lipid profile) Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood sample.Saturated fats increase cholesterol (hyperlipidemia)Polyunsaturated fats (vegetable origin)Decrease blood cholesterol.High cholesterol associated with atherosclerosis.Treatment: low-fat
Cardiac biomarkers1) T2) TC-react.Predicts Chemicals are measured in blood as evidence of heart attack1) troponin-I (cTnI)2) troponin-T (cTnT). These are heart muscle proteins released into circulation after myocardial injury.C-reactive protein (CRP) biomarker of inflammation; predicts heart
BNP testSecreted whenAlso measurement ofIdentifies Measurement of brain BNP ( brain natriuretic peptide) in blood.Secreted when brain becomes overloaded; acts as a diuretic to help heart function return to normal.Also measurements of N-terminal pro BNP levels are taken to ascess heart failure degree.
Nitrates Drugs used in treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.
Angiotensin-converting enzymeACE inhibitor Antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. Prevents heart attacks, CHF,stroke, death.
Palpitations Uncomfortable sensations in chest from missed heartbeats related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions.
Fibrillation Very rapid, random, inefficient and irregular contractions of the heart. (350 beats per minute or more).
Thrill Thrill: vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow ( as a blocked artery).
Patent Open
Occlusion Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage.
EmbolusEmboli (plural) Clot or another substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a vessel.
Digoxin Drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens heartbeat.
Atrial fibrillationAffecting CausesCommon symptoms Most common type of cardiac arrhythmias affecting 5-10 % of 70-80 year-olds, 15% 80+.Caused quivering of atria instead of contractions in coordinated rhythm.Common symptoms: palpitations (uncomfortable sensations in chest. From missed heartbeats), fa
Cardiac tamponade Collection of fluid in pericardial cavity, pressure on heart.
Calcium channel blockers Drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilated blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.
Rheumatic heart diseaseDamaged byTreatment Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever (childhood disease following street infection and sore throat).Damaged by inflammation and heart valves scarred with vegetations so they do not open ir close properly.Treatment: reduced activity, drugs, surgery,
Mitral stenosis Caused by weakening of myocardium (also leads to atrial fibrillation). RESULTS FROM rheumatic heart disease.
Myx/oMyxoma MucusMyxoma: A benign tumor derived from connective tissue, with cells embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue.Rare tumors, occurs often in left atrium.
AneurysmTreatment Local widening (dilation) of arterial wall usually caused by hypertension,congenital weakness or atherosclerosis in vessel wall. Could rupture/ hemorrhage.A stent graft may be some within affected vessel
Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Graft is anastomosed to normal position, and aneurysm sac is closed around graft to prevent FISTULA formation from graft to bowel.
Sphygm/o Pulse
RrhythmDysrrhythmia RhythmDys:rhythmia: abnormal heart rhythm. One r is dropped.
Thrombophlebitis If affected vein is deep within a muscle, condition is known as deep vein thrombosis.
Phleb/oPhlebotomy VeinPhlebotomy: A phlebotomist is trained in opening veins for phlebotomy.
Pericardi/o Pericardium
Ox/oHypoxiaAnoxia OxygenHypoxia: inadequate oxygen in tissues.Anoxia: an extreme form of hypoxia.
Cyan/oCyanosis BlueCyanosis: bluish discoloration of skin indicates diminished oxygen content of blood.
Varicose veins problemsThromb.Pigm. Sk.Risk of Increases suceptibility to thrombophlebitis (clot formation), edema, pigmented skin (blood pools in lower parts of leg And fluid leaks from distended small Capillaries.)Risk of pulmonary embolism.
Anticoagulant drugs or ORAL anticoagulants Blood thinning drugs, like WayfarinORAL anticoagulants: (NOAC's) used to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli (DVT's and PE's)
Deep vein thrombosisMay result in PE Blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb.May result in pulmonary embolism.
Marfan sybdromeAssociated with A genetic disorder marked by long, thin fingers, great arm span, ocular dislocation, loose joints.Associated with aortic aneurysms.
Dissecting aortic aneurysmEndovascular aneurysm repair A splitting or direction of the wall of aorta by blood entering a tear or hemorrhage within walls of vessel.Endovascular aneurysm repair: EVARStent graft procedure
Berry aneurysmsTreatment Aneurysms of small vessels in the brainTreatment is occlusion of vessel with small clips.
Vegetations Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms and red blood cells on diseased heart valves
Porcine xenograft valve Tissue trabsferred from an animal species (pig) to another species (human).
Pericardial friction rub A scraping or grating sound of heart heard on auscultation present in pericarditis.
PericarditisCaused byS/STreatment Inflammation of membrane surrounding heart.Caused by pulmonary infection of bacteria and viruses or idiopathicS/S malaise, fever, chest pain, pericardial friction rub on auscultation.Treatment: pain/ anti Inflammatory drugs, antifungal, antibiotics
FruitAccom. By A murmur heard on auscultation. Abnormal blowing or swishing sound of artery/ organ accompanied by a thrill ( vibration felt on chest palpitation) often.
MurmurCaused byFunctional murmurs Extra heart sound, heard between normal beats.Caused by vascular defect or disease disrupting smooth flow of blood in heart, or interseptal defects.Functional murmurs: not caused by valve or septal defects,; do not endanger health.
Mitral valve prolapseMitral. V. Enl.And pro.Mitral regurgitation Improper closure of mitral valve.Mitral valve enlarges and proplaoses into left atrium during systole leading to a mid systolic click heard audibly by stethoscope and occasionally mitral regurgitation (backflow into left atrium.)
Hypertensive heart disease High blood pressure affecting heart, resulting from narrowing of arterioles, increasing blood pressure pumping action to overcome resistance in arteries.
Endocarditis Inflammation of inner heart liningCured by antibiotics
Bacterial endocarditisPetechiae Bacterial endocarditis (infection) produces lesions (vegetations) which become embolus when they break off. Can lead to TIA or stroke or in small skin vessels where petechiae form (multiple small pinpoint hemorrhages).
Percutaneous coronary intervention Catheterization when balloons and stents open clogged coronary arteries.
Acute coronary syndromes (2) Conditions caused by a myocardial ischemia.Unstable angina: chest pain at rest or of increasing frequency.Myocardial infarction (heart attack). Predetected, consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.Treated by angiography, Percutaneous coro
Nitroglycerin A nitrate drug, a vaso dilator which increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure, producing venodilation, decreasing myocardial O2 consumption and reducing venous return- decrease heart work. Increase blood flow and O2 to myocardial tissue and dilat
Beta blocker Drugs used to treat angina, hypertension, arrhythmias by blocking the action of epinephrine at receptor sites on cells, slowing heartbeat and reducing workload on heart.
Coronary artery bypass grafting Treats CAD by replacing clogged arteries.
Myocardial infarction sequenceAth., Pla, N O thr., U A or NS, OR: I thr., M I or S. 1)Atherosclerotic plaque forms from lipid collection. 2) Plaque ruptured, causing platelet aggregation. 3a) Nonocclusive thrombus causing: 4) unstable angina or NSTEMI (non ST elevation myocardial infarction) OR 3b) inclusive thrombus 4b) myocardial infar
Myocardial infarctionInfarct Heart attack begins with atherosclerosis, then may cause thrombus occlusion ( clot blocking artery) and ischemia (blood flow decreased) or stopped, leading to death, necrosis of a part of myocardial.Infarct: dead myocardial tissue. Area is often replace
Coronary artery disease Disease of arteries surrounding heart.Usually result of atherosclerosis (deposits of fatty plaque in arteries such as coronary arteries, resulting in plugging of artery, making it rough in its lining.)
Symptoms of CHFTreatment Shortness of breath, exercise intolerance, fluid retention, pulmonary edema, edema in legs, feet, ankles, swelling.Treatment: lower sodium diet, diuretics, medication, angio-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta blockers, spironolactone, (increase water/sa
Left ventricular assist device Booster pump implanted in abdomen, with a cannula inserted into left ventricle, helps with CHF while waiting for a transplant. Pumps blood out of heart to body parts.
Congestive heart failure(2)SD Common cause Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood. 2 types: systolic: left ventricular dysfunction resukts in low ejection of ampunt of blood leaving ventricle, less pumped.Diastolic: heart can contract normally but remains stiff, less compliant whe
Transplantation of the great arteries TGA Pulmonary artery arises from left ventricle and the aorta from right ventricle.Caused cyanosis and hypoxia.Surgery performed to switch around.
Tetralogy of Fallot(4) Blue baby, cyanosis present at birth. Congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects
4 heart defects of Tetralogy of Fallot1st 2 1)Pulmonary artery stenosis (narrow, Obstructed).2) Ventricular fetal defect (large hole between 2 ventricles allows venous blood to pass from right to left ventricle out aorta without oxygenation)
Tetralogy of FallotLast 2 3).Shift of aorta to right. (O2- blood passes to aorta from right ventricle. Aorta overrides interventrucular septum).4). Hypertrophy of right ventricle- (myocardium works harder through narrowed pulmonary artery as it pumps.)
Septal defectsMay cl.Amplatzer device Small holes in wall between atria or the ventricles (atrial/ ventricle defects).May close on its own, or require open heart surgery, or use of an Amplatzer device, (A less invasive catheter technique).
Heart-lung machine Connects to patient's circulatory system and relieves the heart and legs of pumping and oxygenation functions during open heart surgery.
Coarctation of the aortaTreatment:sCong. Narrowing (coartation) of the aorta reduces supply of blood to lower body.Surgery consists of removal of constructed region and anastomosis if aortic segments end to end.Congenital heart disease.
Patent ductus arteriosis (PDA) Passageway (ductus arteriosis) between aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open after birth.Normally closes after birth. RESULTS in flow of oxygenated bloid from aorta to pulmonary artery. Congenital heart disease, can heal.Treatments include medica
Congenital heart disease Abnormalities in heart at birth
Catheter ablation Permanent cure for arrhythmias.Minimally invasive treatment for cardiac arrhythmias, using radio frequency energy from tip of catheter inserted through a bloo vessel into heart to destroy tissue that causes arrhythmias.Treats: supraventricular tachyca
Implantable cardioverter defibillator A small electrical device implanted insidechest near collarbone to termonate arrhythmias after sensing them with an ekectric shock.
Automatic external defibrillators Used in emergencies to reverse ventricular fibrillation.
Ventricular fibrillation Electrical impulses move randomly throughout ventricles. Life threatening, can result in cardiac arrest or death (stoppage of heart movement).If defibrillation is applied immediately, VF can be interrupted, returning heart to normal rhythm (stopping it
Atrial fibrillation treatments Anticoagulant (blood thinners) such as Wayfarin.NOACs newer anticoagulant that are ORAL such as Eliquis, Praxada, Xarelto.
Paroxysmal Atrial fibrillationI. Per.Per. And per.Can l.Risk Irregular heartbeats that occur periodically and episidically.Permanent/ persistent AF (irregular heartbeats continue indefinately).Can last long periods, weakening heart muscle.Stroke risk, from blood clots in left atrial appendage traveling to brai
Angina (pectoris)Stable anginaUnstable angina Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia.Stable angina: occurs with exertion.Unstable angina: chest pain occurring with less exertion.
Mitral valvulitisAn auto. An inflammatory disease associated with Rheumatic fever, caused by inadequate treatment of streptococcal infection.An autoimmune reaction occurs, leading to inflammation and heart valve damage.
Thromb/o Clot
Steth/oAuscultation ChestAuscultation: listening to sounds within the body, typically using a stethoscope.
Valvul/o Valv/oValvuloplasty ValveValvuloplasty: A balloon-tipped catheter dilated a cardiac valve.
Vas/o Vessel
Vascul/o Vessel
Ven/oVen/iVenous cut downIntravenous infusion VeinVenous: A venous cut down is a small surflgical incision to permit access to a collapsed vein.Intravenous fusion: delivery of fluids into vein.
Venipuncture Procedure performed for phlebotomy or to start intravenous infusion.
Ventricul/o Ventricle, lower chamber, heart chamber
ArrhythmiasProblems withMore than Abnormal heart rhythms (dysrrhythmias).Problems with conduction or electrical system of heart.More than 4 million people have
Bradycardia Failure of proper conduction of impulses from SA node THrough AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)Damage to S.A. node may cause impulses to be too weak to activate the AV node so impulses fail to reach ventricles, resulting in slow hea
Heart block (atrioventrulicular block)Partial Partial heart block: If bradycardia occurs only occasionally, the heart misses a brat in rhythm at regular intervals
Complete heart block If no impulses reach AV node from SA node, ventricles contract a lower than atria, uncoordinated action.Right and left bundle branch involve delivery Failure of impulses traveling through them to reach ventricles.
Cardiac pacemaker Overcomes arrhythmias and keeps heart steadily beating at proper rate. Powered by a generator computer lithium battery implanted below collar bone. With wires to both chambers usually on right side of heart.It automatically increases or decreases paced
FlutterH B can reachRequires Rapid but regular contractions, usually of atria.Heart rate can reach up to 300 beats per minute.Requires medication, electrical cardioversion, or catheter ablation.
How does a pacemaker work? Wires detect heart activity and transmit information to computer generator. The computer analyzes heart signals, and stimulates contractions by sending a signal and then increasing the rate.Rate responsive pacemakers detect body movement and breathing b
Bioventricular pacemaker Treats delays and abnormakties in ventricular contractions. Can rekieve symptoms of CHF BY reducing hospital admission.Leads in right atrium and right and left ventricles to synchronize ventricular contractions.Device enabling ventricles to beat toget
Treatment for CAD (coronary artery disease) and ACS (acute coronary syndrome) Aspirin prevents platelet clumping.Beta blockers reduce force/ speed of heartbeat, lowering blood pressure.ACE inhibitors reduce high blood pressure, heart attack risk.Calcium channel blockers relax muscles in blood vessels.Stations lower cholesterol
Hemorrhoids Varicose veins near anus
Varicose veins Abnormally swollen and twisted veins usually occurring in legs.Caused by damaged valves that fail to prevent back flow of blood. Blood collects in veins, distending them to larger size.Thrombosis may also occur from slow blood flow or frequent injury.
Treatment for varicose veins Sclerotherapy, laser/ pulse-light treatments, ligation, vein stripping.
Raynaud's disease Recurrent episodes Of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes.A rare disorder, idiopathic, affecting blood flow in arteries, marked by brief episodes of intense constriction and vasosoasm of arterioles in young healthy women.Traeatment: medi
Embolic protection devices Parachute-like filters used to capture embolus debris during stenting.
Intermittent claudication Absence of pain or discomfort in leg at rest, but pain, tension, weakness after walking has begun.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) Blockage of arteries carrying blood to legs, arms, kidneys, others, affecting arteries such as carotid, (neck), femoral (thigh) or papliteal (back of knee).
Treatment for peripheral arterial diseaseSur.: e & b g, p b a, at., st. Exercise, no nicotine, controlling hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes.Surgeries such as endarterectomy and bypass grafting, percutaneous balloon angioplasty, atherectomy, stenting.
HypertensionEssential Hypertension Secondary hypertension High blood pressureEssential hypertension: most hypertension, idiopathicSecondary hypertension: increase in pressure caused by another associated lesion, such as glomerulonephritis or adrenal glands diseases.
Percutaneous coronary intervention Balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open it; stents are put in place. Includes Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, stent placement, laser angioplasty (laser vaporized plaque at tip of catheter) and atherectomy.

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