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the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct. photosynthesis
The chemical process that generates most of the energy in the cell, supplying molecules needed to make the metabolic reactions (see metabolism) of an organism run. Note: The main carrier of energy in metabolism is the molecule ATP. cellular respiration
a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place. chloroplast
green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring. chlorophyll
a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. glucose
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae). mitochondria
the spreading of something more widely. diffusion
a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane. osmosis
a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning carbon and organic compounds and by respiration. It is naturally present in air (about 0.03 percent) and is absorbed by plants in photosynthesis. carbon dioxide

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