science7thtraits

science7thtraits

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Term Definition
heredity the passing of traits from parents to offspring
genetics the study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring
Gregor Medel Father of genetics
self pollination occurs when pollen from one plant lands on the pistil of a flower on the same plant
cross-pollination occurs when pollen from one plant reaches the pistil of a flower on a different plant
hybrid plants came from true breeding parent with different forms of the same trait
dominant trait a genetic factor that blacks another genetic factor
recessive trait a genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor
gene a section of chromosome that has genetic information for one trait
alleles the different forms of a gene
phenotype how a trait appears or is expressed
genotype the two alleles that control the phenotype of the trait
homozygous when the two alleles of a gene are the same
heterozygous when the two alleles of a gene are different
punnett square a model used to predict possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring
pedigree shows phenotypes of genetically related family members
incomplete dominance when the offspring's phenotype is a combination of the parents phenotypes
codominance when both alleles can be observed in a phenotype
sex-linked traits when the allele for a trait is on an X or Y chromosome
polgeneic inheritance occurs when multiple genes determine the phenotype of a trait
DNA an organism's genetic material
nucleotide a molecule made of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate
replication the process of copying a DNA molecule to make another DNA molecule
junk DNA DNA that is not part of genes
RNA type of nucleic acid that carries the code for making proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
transcription the process of making mRNA from DNA
translation the process of making a pro from RNA
codon each series of three nitrogen bases on mRNA
mutation a change in the nucleotide sequence of a gene

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