Unit 5 World H Test Unit 5 Test

Unit 5 World H Test Unit 5 Test

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Term Definition
Characteristics of Absolutism – Absolute monarch
Divine Right – The right of sovereignty
Louis XIV – French emperor- Kept nobles close- Attempted to expand land
Versailles Palace – Monarch- King and queen had separate halls
Peter the Great – Serfdom- Isolated- Russia- E Ortho- Absolutism – West
James I – Short life/term- Money problems
Charles I – Petition of Right- Money- Eng Civil War
Oliver Cromwell – Military Dictatorship
Charles II – Restores monarchy
James II – Constitutional Monarchy- Denied it- Fled to france
William and Mary – Constitutional Monarchy- Bill of Rights
Petition of Right – Would not imprison w/o cause, levy taxes w/o consent, house soldiers, impose martial law.
Cavaliers – Supporters of Charles
Restoration – Bringing back the monarchy after Cromwell
Habeas Corpus – The right to be brought in front of a judge
Glorious Revolution – William and Mary
Constitutional Monarchy – Limited monarchy
Tories/Whigs Tories – In favor of absolute monarchyWhigs – In favor of constitutional monarchy
English Bill of Rights of 1689 – Constitutional Monarchy- William and Mary-Glorious Revolution
English Cabinet System – Control money
Cardinal Richelieu – Strong minister- Catholic Church- 30 years war
Jean Baptiste Colbert – Minister of France
War of Spanish Succession – Charles II -> Phillip- Other countries didn't agree
Seven Years’ War – Diplomatic revolution
War of Austrian Succession – Treaty of Aix-la-Chapialle- Lost Silesia
Ivan IV – Ivan the Terrible- Czar- Wife died – believed it was a murder- Police force
Boyars – Land owners- Nobles
Serfs – Tied to land- Work for very cheap/housing
Causes of English civil war – Religion- Protestants
Edict of Nantes – Granted the Huguenots rights in the nation
Isaac Newton – English Scientist- Published Mathematical Principles of Nature
Edward Jenner – British physician – Smallpox vaccine
Enlightenment – Thomas Hobbes & John Locke- Social Contract – Natural Right
Heliocentric Theory – Sun is center- Copernicus- Brahe- Kepler
Philosophes – Critics- Reason, nature, progress, happiness, and liberty
Geocentric Theory – Earth is center- Aristotle
Nicolas Copernicus – Astronomer- Movement of planets – 25 years- On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies
Kepler – Mathematician- Continued Brahe's work- Elliptical orbits
Galileo Galilee – Law of the Pendulum- Built own telescope- Newsletters – Starry Messenger- Laws of Motion
William Harvey – Heart is a pump- On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in animals
Thomas Hobbes – Gov keeps order- Social Contract- Absolute monarchy – Leviathan
John Locke – Life, liberty, property- Natural rights- All are free + equal- Learn from exp.
Baron de Montesquieu – Studied Ancient Rome- Political Liberties
Jean Jacques Rousseau – Studied Ancient Rome- Political Liberties- Best gov – Britain- On the Spirit of the Laws- Checks and balances
Voltaire – Targeted- Enemy of french gov- Prison, exiled, fled to Paris
Influence of Enlightenment on : founders of United States – The overthrow of monarchy
Influence of Enlightenment on : Bill of Rights – All are equal
Influence of Enlightenment on : U.S. Constitution – Checks and balances
Influence of Enlightenment on : Declaration of Independence – Individual freedom
5 concepts of the Enlightenment – Reason, liberty, happiness, nature, progress
Rene Descartes – France- Analytical Geometry- Mathematics & logic
Salons – Social gatherings- Wealthy women
Mary Wollstonecraft – Vindication of the Rights of Women- Education- Doctors & politics
Music – Bach- Handle- Wolfgang- Mozart- Beethoven – Classical Music
Diderot – Encyclopedia
Constitutional Monarchy – Power of monarchy is limited
Influence of Enlightenment Ideas – Liberty, equality, + democracy- 2nd Estate saw them as radical nations- 3rd Estate strongly believed in them
Influence of America Revolution – Inspired 3rd estate to start their own revolution
Storming of the Bastille – First violent mob- Falling of a prison- Gunpowder
Reign of Terror – Almost a dictatorship- Committee of Public Safety- Republic of Virtue
Miguel Hidalgo – Priest – Dolores- Enlightenment ideas- Grito de Dolores
Toussaint L’Ouverture – Led the slaves- seized control over productive colony
Simon Bolivar – Military and political leader
Otto von Bismarck – Prime minister- Realpolitik- Purposefully stirred up politics
Haitian rebellion – Vs. France- Slave rebellion
Realpolitik – Realism- Otto von Bismarck
Guiseppe Mazzini – Young Italy – National/Idealistic- Republican Gov – Rome
Grito de Dolores – The Cry of Dolores- Call for rebellion- Hildago
Napoleon: Rise/fall/legacy – French emperor- Industrialization- Drive out Austria- Became prisoner of Russia- Military general
Battle of Waterloo – Britain, Russia Vs. France- Hundred Days War
Count Cavor – Prime minister – Sardinia- Provoked war w/Austria
Guiseppe Garibaldi – Soldier- Red shirt
Franco-Prussian War – 1867- Planned by Bismarck to unite
Cause of French Revolution – Enlightenment- Debt- Famine
Estate System – 1st Estate – Clergy- 2nd Estate – Nobles – 3rd Estate – Commoners – 98% population
Estates-General meeting – 3rd estate wanted a change – 1/3 vote- Lead to Tennis Court Oath
Bourgeoisie – Upper 3rd Estate- Merchants and artisans
Louis XVI – ^ debt- Estates-General meeting
Tennis Court Oath – 3rd Estate- Kicked out of meeting- Gather in the room next door
Declaration of the Rights of Man – Men are born free and equal- Liberty, property, security, and the resistance of oppression
Directory – Executive body of five men
Battle of Trafalgar – Nap. Vs. 3rd Coalition- Lost- Naval defeat
Battle of Leipzig – Nap. lost- No trained soldiers
Battle of Borodino – Nap. Vs. Russia- Finally clashed- Russia retreated – Moscow in ruins
Continental System – Blockade- Prevented trade and communication
Napoleonic code – System of laws- Limited liberty- Promoted order and authority over individual rights
Scorched-earth policy – The burning of Moscow- Takes away supplies from enemies
Prince Klemens von Metternich – Foreign minister of Austria- Distrusted democratic ideals of the Revolution- Balance of powers
Principle of legitimacy – Former leaders restored to power
Congress of Vienna – Series of meetings- 8 months
Emigres – French- Aristocrat- Fled France
Sans-coulettes – Radical group- "those w/o knee breeches"- Parison wage – earners and shopkeepers
Guillotine – Execution- Machine- French Revolution- Robespierre killed
Louisiana Purchase – Louisiana territory- U.S. Pres- Jefferson
Concert of Europe – Territorial & political status- Meeting- Post Napoleonic era
War with Austria – Bismarck- France – Prussian war – Planned

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