Zoey Chapter 5 Voc Life Science

Zoey Chapter 5 Voc Life Science

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heredity the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
genetics Genetics is the study of heredity. Heredity is a biological process where a parent passes certain genes onto their children or offspring.
Gregor Mendel Austrian monk who discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his garden to answer questions and research
self pollination occurs when pollen from 1 plant lands on the pistil of the same flower
cross pollination pollination from 1 plant reaches the pistil of a flower on another plant
hybrid plants comes from true breeding parent plans with different forms of same trait
dominant trait a genetic factor that backs another genetic factor, a trait that will appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes it.
recessive trait a section on a chromosome that the genetic information for one trait, is only expressed when an organism has two recessive alleles for a gene.
gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
alleles different forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
phenotype the observable physical properties of an organism; these include the organism's appearance, development, and behavior.
genotype the information contained within two alleles. controls the phenotype of a trait, genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic (phenotype) of that cell/organism/individual.
homozygous when 2 alleles of a gene are the same describes a genotype consisting of two identical alleles
heterozygous if the 2 alleles of a gene are different, describes a genotype consisting of two different alleles at
punnett square a model used to predict the possible genotypes and phenotypes of offsprings
pedigree shows phenotypes of genetically related family members
incomplete dominance This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles.
codominance This results in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive, can be observed in both alleles of this type of interaction
sex linked trait determines the gender, A trait associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent.
polygenic inheritance phenoytpe of a Traits that are controlled by multiple genes and/or influenced by the environment
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that carries the genetic material used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living …
nucleotide they are composed of nitrogenous base, a sugar and at least one phosphate group.
replication the process of copying DNA molecules to make another DNA molecule
junk DNA not part of the genes, refers to regions of DNA that are noncoding
RNA nucleic acid that carries the code for making protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, RNA is vital for living beings.
transcription The process of making (RNA) copy of a DNA molecule, is necessary for all forms of life.
coden 3 nitrogen bases on mRNA
mutations changes in the nucleotide sequence of a game
translation making protein from RNA

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